Objective: To examine temporal trends in the rates of severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) between 1994 and 2002.
Study design: In a retrospective cohort study, all infants with a gestational age (GA) <33 weeks in a large managed care organization were identified. Annual rates of BPD (defined as an oxygen requirement at 36 weeks corrected GA), severe BPD (defined as respiratory support at 36 weeks corrected GA), and death before 36 weeks corrected GA were examined.
Results: Of the 5115 infants in the study cohort, 603 (12%) had BPD, including 246 (4.9%) who had severe BPD. There were 481 (9.5%) deaths before 36 weeks corrected GA. Although the decline in BPD in this period was not significant, the rates of severe BPD declined from 9.7% in 1994 to 3.7% in 2002. Controlling for gestational age, the odds ratio (95% CI) for annual rate of decline in severe BPD was 0.890 (0.841-0.941). Controlling for gestational age, deaths before 36 weeks corrected GA also declined, with the odds ratio (CI) for the annual decline being 0.944 (0.896-0.996).
Conclusions: In this study population, the odds of having of BPD remained constant after controlling for GA. However, the odds of having severe BPD declined on average 11% per year between 1994 and 2002.