Mucosal immunity and vaccines

Nat Med. 2005 Apr;11(4 Suppl):S45-53. doi: 10.1038/nm1213.


There is currently great interest in developing mucosal vaccines against a variety of microbial pathogens. Mucosally induced tolerance also seems to be a promising form of immunomodulation for treating certain autoimmune diseases and allergies. Here we review the properties of the mucosal immune system and discuss advances in the development of mucosal vaccines for protection against infections and for treatment of various inflammatory disorders.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Animals
  • Autoimmune Diseases / therapy
  • Communicable Disease Control
  • Drug Delivery Systems
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity / therapy
  • Immunity, Mucosal*
  • Lymphoid Tissue / immunology
  • Vaccines* / therapeutic use


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Vaccines