Acute delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced deficits in reversal learning: neural correlates of affective inflexibility

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2005 Oct;30(10):1895-905. doi: 10.1038/sj.npp.1300715.

Abstract

Despite concerns surrounding the possible adverse effects of marijuana on complex cognitive function, the processes contributing to the observed cognitive deficits are unclear, as are the causal relationships between these impairments and marijuana exposure. In particular, marijuana-related deficits in cognitive flexibility may affect the social functioning of the individual and may contribute to continued marijuana use. We therefore examined the ability of rats to perform affective and attentional shifts following acute administration of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive marijuana constituent. Administration of 1 mg/kg THC produced marked impairments in the ability to reverse previously relevant associations between stimulus features and reward presentation, while the ability to transfer attentional set between dimensional stimulus properties was unaffected. Concurrent in situ hybridization analysis of regional c-fos and ngfi-b expression highlighted areas of the prefrontal cortex and striatum that were recruited in response to both THC administration and task performance. Furthermore, the alterations in mRNA expression in the orbitofrontal cortex and striatum were associated with the ability to perform the reversal discriminations. These findings suggest that marijuana use may produce inelasticity in updating affective associations between stimuli and reinforcement value, and that this effect may arise through dysregulation of orbitofrontal and striatal circuitry.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Affect / drug effects*
  • Affect / physiology
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Discrimination Learning / drug effects
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Dronabinol / administration & dosage*
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Hallucinogens / administration & dosage*
  • In Situ Hybridization / methods
  • Learning Disabilities / chemically induced
  • Learning Disabilities / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Long-Evans
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / genetics
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / metabolism
  • Receptors, Steroid / genetics
  • Receptors, Steroid / metabolism
  • Reversal Learning / drug effects*
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism

Substances

  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Hallucinogens
  • Nr4a1 protein, rat
  • Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Receptors, Steroid
  • Transcription Factors
  • Dronabinol