A test for measuring recognition and naming of landmarks

J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2005 Jan;27(1):102-26. doi: 10.1080/138033990513663.


There have been considerable giants in recent years in understanding cognitive and neural correlated for retrieval of various types of knowledge, such as the meanings and lexical forms for categories such as a familiar faces, animals and tools, and actions. An important category that has been largely neglected so far is landmarks, and one likely reason for this is a lack of suitable stimulus materials. Here, we report a study in which we designed a Landmark Recognition and Naming Test. The test contains 65 natural (e.g., "Old Faithful") and artifactual (e.g., "U.S Capitol") landmarks from around the world. Preliminary recognition and naming data about the participants (e.g., educational level, participants, experience traveling to national parks), the stimuli (e.g., visual complexity, image agreement), and participant-stimulus interactions (e.g., familiarity, age of acquisition), and analyzed how such factors influenced landmark recognition and naming. There was a pronounced sex-related difference in landmark recognition favoring men; however, men and women performed similarly in landmark naming. We provide here extensive data regarding the stimuli, and we encourage other investigators to make use of our stimuli and data in future investigations of landmark recognition and naming.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acoustic Stimulation
  • Adult
  • Cues
  • Education
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neuropsychological Tests*
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Psychomotor Performance / physiology
  • Recognition, Psychology / physiology*
  • Terminology as Topic
  • Travel