Members of the family C receptors within the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily include the metabotropic glutamate receptors, GABA(B) receptors, the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), the V2R pheromone receptors, the T1R taste receptors, and a small group of uncharacterized orphan receptors. We have cloned and studied the mouse GPRC6A family C orphan receptor. The open reading frame codes for a protein with highest sequence identity to the fish 5.24 odorant receptor and the mammalian CaSR. The gene structure shows a striking resemblance to that of the CaSR. Results from RT-PCR analyses showed that mouse GPRC6A mRNA is expressed in mouse brain, skeletal muscle, heart, lung, spleen, kidney, liver, and in the early stage mouse embryo. Immunocytochemical analysis of the cloned mouse GPRC6A cDNA expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells demonstrated that GPRC6A was present on the plasma membrane, as well as in the endoplasmic reticulum and nuclear envelope membranes of transfected cells. A chimeric cDNA construct in which the extracellular ligand binding domain of the fish 5.24 amino acid-activated odorant receptor was ligated to the complementary downstream sequence of the mouse GPRC6A receptor indicated that GPRC6A is coupled to phosphoinositol turnover and release of intracellular calcium. Further studies with mouse GPRC6A expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated that this receptor possesses a pharmacological profile resembling that of the fish 5.24 odorant receptor. These findings suggest that GPRC6A may function as the receptor component of a novel cellular transmitter system in mammals.