Background: Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived peptide, improves insulin sensitivity, has antiinflammatory and antiatherogenic effects, and is associated with a lower risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about dietary predictors of plasma adiponectin concentrations in humans.
Objective: Our objective was to examine cross-sectionally the association between dietary factors and plasma adiponectin in men.
Design: Our study included 532 male participants of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study who were selected as control subjects for an investigation of biological predictors of IHD. Diet, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were assessed by questionnaires.
Results: After multivariable adjustment, adiponectin was significantly inversely related to glycemic load (-1.3 mg/L per 1-SD increase; P = 0.02) and tended to be positively associated with total fat intake (0.7 mg/L per 0.5% of energy from fat instead of carbohydrates; P = 0.06). We also found a significant nonlinear association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and alcohol intake (P for quadratic trend = 0.01). Thus, whereas nondrinkers had mean plasma adiponectin concentrations of 16.48 mg/L, those who consumed 0.1-4.9, 5.0-14.9, 15.0-29.9, or >/=30 g alcohol/d had mean concentrations of 16.79 (P = 0.77 compared with nondrinkers), 18.97 (P = 0.02), 19.11 (P = 0.01), and 18.39 (P = 0.10) mg/L, respectively.
Conclusions: Moderate alcohol intake is associated with higher adiponectin concentrations, whereas a carbohydrate-rich diet with a high glycemic load is associated with lower adiponectin concentrations in men with no history of cardiovascular disease. Although the strength of these associations was modest, our observations highlight the hypothesis that dietary factors may modulate plasma adiponectin concentrations-a potential mediator related to a reduced IHD risk.