Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex neurobehavioral disorder that results from loss of function of 10 clustered, paternally expressed genes in a 1.5-Mb region of chromosome 15q11-q13. Many of the primary PWS region genes appear to have nuclear RNA regulatory functions, suggesting that multiple genetic pathways could be secondarily affected in PWS. Using a transgenic mouse model of PWS (TgPWS) with an approximately 4-Mb chromosome 7C deletion of paternal origin that models the neonatal phenotype of the human syndrome we compared by oligonucleotide microarrays expression levels of approximately 12,000 genes and ESTs in TgPWS and wild-type brain. Hybridization data were processed with two distinct statistical algorithms and revealed a dramatically reduced expression of 4 imprinted genes within the deletion region in TgPWS mice, with 2 nonimprinted, codeleted genes reduced twofold. However, only 3 genes outside the deletion were significantly altered in TgPWS mouse brain, with approximately 1.5-fold up-regulation of mRNA levels. Remarkably, these genes map to a single chromosome domain (18B3), and by quantitative RT-PCR we show that 8 genes in this domain are up-regulated in TgPWS brain. These 18B3 genes were up-regulated in an equivalent manner in Angelman syndrome mouse (TgAS) brain, which has the same deletion but of maternal origin. Therefore, the trans-regulation of the chromosome 18B3 domain is due to decreased expression of a nonimprinted gene within the TgPWS/AS mouse deletion in mouse chromosome 7C. Most surprisingly, since 48-60% of the genome was screened, it appears that the imprinted mouse PWS loci do not widely regulate mRNA levels of other genes and may regulate RNA structure.