Osteoporosis is a chronic condition chiefly affecting postmenopausal women, in whom the skeleton loses a significant percentage of its mineralized mass and mechanical resiliency, thereby becoming prone to fracture. Although the effect of the loss of estrogen on bone metabolism has been documented, its mechanism is still poorly understood. In the present proteomic study, we characterized the effect of estrogen deficiency on protein expression in rat bones. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and rat protein database, we successfully identified three distinctly changed proteins named thioredoxin peroxidase 1, myosin light polypeptide 2 and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-17 kD, among which ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2-17 kD has been documented to be an estrogen-related protein, but the other two are first reported to be osteoporosis-related proteins in the current study. These results provide valuable experimental evidences for the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of osteoporosis related to the loss of estrogen.