Although epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) have been thought to arise from the simple epithelium lining the ovarian surface or inclusion cysts, the major subtypes of EOCs show morphologic features that resemble those of the müllerian duct-derived epithelia of the reproductive tract. We found that HOX genes, which normally regulate mullerian duct differentiation, are not expressed in normal ovarian surface epithelium (OSE), but are expressed in different EOC subtypes according to the pattern of mullerian-like differentiation of these cancers. Ectopic expression of Hoxa9 in tumorigenic mouse OSE cells gave rise to papillary tumors resembling serous EOCs. In contrast, Hoxa10 and Hoxa11 induced morphogenesis of endometrioid-like and mucinous-like EOCs, respectively. Hoxa7 showed no lineage specificity, but promoted the abilities of Hoxa9, Hoxa10 and Hoxa11 to induce differentiation along their respective pathways. Therefore, inappropriate activation of a molecular program that controls patterning of the reproductive tract could explain the morphologic heterogeneity of EOCs and their assumption of müllerian-like features.