Multi-stage ponds-wetlands ecosystem for effective wastewater treatment

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2005 May;6(5):346-52. doi: 10.1631/jzus.2005.B0346.


The performance of the Dongying multi-stage ponds-wetlands ecosystem was investigated in this work. Study of the removal of different pollutants (BOD(5), COD, SS, TP, TN, NH(3)-N, etc.) in different temperature seasons and different units in this system indicated that effluent BOD(5) and SS were constant to less than 11 mg/L and 14 mg/L throughout the experimental processes; but that the removal efficiencies of pollutants such as TP, TN, NH(3)-N, COD varied greatly with season. The higher the temperature was, the higher was the observed removal in this system. Additionally, each unit of the system functioned differently in removing pollutants. BOD(5) and SS were mainly removed in the first three units (hybrid facultative ponds, aeration ponds and aerated fish ponds), whereas nitrogen and phosphates were mainly removed in hydrophyte ponds and constructed reed wetlands. The multi-stage ponds-wetlands ecosystem exhibits good potential of removing different pollutants, and the effluent quality meet several standards for wastewater reuse.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Ecosystem*
  • Fresh Water* / chemistry
  • Nitrogen / isolation & purification
  • Phosphates / isolation & purification
  • Temperature
  • Waste Disposal, Fluid*
  • Water / chemistry*
  • Water Purification / methods*


  • Phosphates
  • Water
  • Nitrogen