The major modes of presentation of patients with celiac disease are the classic diarrhea-predominant form and silent celiac disease. Those with silent celiac disease lack diarrhea, although they may present with manifestations of celiac disease that include an irritable bowel syndrome, anemia, osteoporosis, neurologic diseases, or malignancy. A significant proportion of patients are diagnosed through screening at-risk groups including relatives of patients and insulin-dependant diabetics. Nondiarrheal presentations now are seen more commonly than those with diarrhea. Patients with celiac disease have a greater burden of disease than the general population because of autoimmune diseases and malignancies. There is a need for screening studies of patients with conditions associated with celiac disease to determine whether the large numbers of people with undiagnosed celiac disease currently are seeking health care.