Dietary patterns reflect combinations of dietary exposures, and here we examine these in relation to prostate cancer risk. In a case-control study, 80 incident primary prostate cancer cases and 334 urology clinic controls were enrolled from 1997 through 1999 in Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Food-frequency questionnaires were completed prior to diagnosis and assessed intake in the 1-year period 2-3 years prior to enrollment. Among controls, dietary intake was used in principal components analyses to identify patterns that were then evaluated with all subjects in relation to prostate cancer risk using unconditional logistic regression, controlling for age. Four dietary patterns were identified: Healthy Living, Traditional Western, Processed and Beverages. Increased prostate cancer risk is apparent in relation to the Processed pattern, composed of processed meats, red meats, organ meats, refined grains, white bread, onions and tomatoes, vegetable oil and juice, soft drinks and bottled water. The OR for the highest tertile compared to baseline is 2.75 (95% CI 1.40-5.39), with a dose-response pattern (trend test p < 0.0035). Our results suggest that a dietary pattern including refined grain products, processed meats and red and organ meats contributes to increased prostate cancer risk. Since dietary information was collected before subjects knew their diagnosis, recall bias was avoided.
(c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.