Warfarin therapy requires close monitoring to avoid excessive bleeding and to maintain the effective therapeutic concentration assessed with the internationalized ratio (INR). High vitamin K intake can decrease the therapeutic effectiveness of warfarin, while poor vitamin K status appears to increase the sensitivity to small changes in vitamin K intake, especially from supplements. Very large amounts of vitamin K from a single meal with vegetables (400 g of vegetables with 700 to 1500 microg of vitamin K1) can measurably change INR, but occasional typical servings (<100 g) would probably have little lasting impact on INR. Warfarin requirements may change in those altering their intake of dark-green vegetables. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends 3 cups/week of dark-green vegetables, which contain about 100 to 570 microg/serving of vitamin K1. Less well-known sources and chemical forms of vitamin K, such as MK-7 in natto (a fermented Japanese product), also measurably influence INR. Additional research is needed in warfarin-treated patients to fully quantify the interactions among various sources and chemical forms of vitamin K, age, genotype, and other factors.