Sex differences in cardiovascular and total mortality among diabetic and non-diabetic individuals with or without history of myocardial infarction

Diabetologia. 2005 May;48(5):856-61. doi: 10.1007/s00125-005-1730-6. Epub 2005 Apr 13.


Aims/hypothesis: We investigated the associations of type 2 diabetes and a history of myocardial infarction (MI) with coronary heart disease, stroke, cardiovascular and total mortality, and whether these effects are different in men and women.

Methods: Study cohorts included 51,735 Finnish men and women aged 25-74 years. Smoking status and the history of MI and type 2 diabetes were recorded, and height, weight, blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels were measured at baseline. Additional data on the occurrence of diabetes and MI prior to baseline survey were obtained from national hospital discharge and drug registers through computerised register linkage. Mortality data were obtained from the national mortality register.

Results: During a mean follow-up period of 17.2 years, 9,201 deaths were recorded. Hazard ratios (HRs) for coronary mortality were 2.1, 4.0 and 6.4 among men with diabetes alone, men with MI alone, and men with diabetes and MI, respectively, compared with men with neither diabetes nor a history of MI. The corresponding HRs among women were 4.9, 2.5 and 9.4, respectively. The equivalent HRs for cardiovascular and total mortality were 2.2, 3.3 and 6.0, and 1.8, 2.3 and 3.7 in men, and 4.4, 2.4 and 6.5, and 3.2, 1.7 and 4.4 in women, respectively. Diabetic men and women had similar total mortality rates, whereas total mortality rates were markedly higher among men in the other three diabetes-MI categories.

Conclusions/interpretation: Diabetes and MI markedly increase cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. In women, the association between diabetes and mortality was stronger than that between MI and mortality, whereas the converse was true among men.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality*
  • Coronary Disease / mortality
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / mortality*
  • Female
  • Finland
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology*
  • Myocardial Infarction / mortality
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Sex Characteristics*
  • Smoking
  • Stroke / epidemiology
  • Stroke / mortality