Inflammatory diseases encompass a variety of medical conditions. In this chapter, autoimmune diseases and allergic disorders will be our focus. The autoimmune diseases include organ-specific autoimmunities, such as type I diabetes mellitus and autoimmune thyroiditis (AITD), and organ non-specific disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). All of them seem to share aspects of aberrant immunologic tolerance toward self-antigens. Asthma and atopic diathesis are among the allergies. Crohn disease and SLE are relatively rare with a prevalence of 10-50 per 100,000, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, AITD and asthma are commoner with a prevalence of 500 per 100,000 or much higher. The difference among ethnic groups is not prominent for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, AITD or asthma, but Crohn disease and SLE affect some ethnic populations more than others. Although all of these disorders have some environmental component, asthma and atopy seem most affected by environmental factors, as is suggested by the significant increase in their incidence over the last several decades with changes in various environmental factors, especially in developed countries. Over the last 10 years, multiple linkage studies revealed many disease-linked loci throughout the genome with various consistencies. As implicated by some pathophysiological studies of inflammatory immune system related disorders, certain loci are involved in multiple disorders. In the following sections, reports on the identification of disease-associated genes or markers will be summarized for individual diseases (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated 4 (CTLA4), CARD15, DLG5, SLC22A4/A5, programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1), RUNX1, SLC9A3R1/NAT9, PADI4, ADAM33, DPP10, PHF11 and GPRA), followed by a discussion of the genes that have been implicated in multiple disorders.