Rate of maillard browning in sweet whey powder

J Dairy Sci. 2005 May;88(5):1636-45. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72835-6.


The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of Maillard browning in 3 commercial sweet whey powders (WC1, WC2, and MW1), under accelerated shelf-life testing (ASLT) and under normal storage conditions (21 degrees C and 35% RH). Rate of brown pigment formation (k) obtained from short-term ASLT of whey powder was compared with actual findings obtained from the long-term shelf-life testing under normal conditions. Deterioration by Maillard browning, measured by spectrophotometer, was compared with changes in color (Hunter Laboratory), free moisture, titratable acidity, and sensory attributes. Results suggest that estimated k (from ASLT) was comparable with the observed rate (obtained at ambient temperature) for 2 producers (WC1, MW1). The actual k values observed for samples WC1, WC2, and MW1, stored under normal conditions, were 0.0031, 0.0080, and 0.0148 color units/g of solid per mo, respectively. The estimated values of k for samples WC1, WC2, and MW1 were 1.12, 4.90, and 1.35 times more than the observed values, respectively. The Q10 values (increase in reaction rate for a 10 degrees C temperature increase) ranged from 1.77 to 4.14, and the activation energies ranged from 15.9 to 28.4 kcal/mol. Hunter Laboratory values L* and a* appeared most sensitive to changes during storage. Free moisture content, and acidity increased significantly with storage. However, no significant changes were detected by the sensory panel in the attributes considered.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemistry, Physical
  • Food Microbiology
  • Food Preservation
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Kinetics
  • Maillard Reaction*
  • Milk Proteins / chemistry*
  • Odorants
  • Taste
  • Whey Proteins


  • Milk Proteins
  • Whey Proteins