Acute renal failure and tubular cell loss as a result of ischemia constitute major challenges in renal pathophysiology. Increasing evidence suggests important roles for bone marrow stem cells in the regeneration of renal tissue after injury. This study investigated whether the enhanced availability of hematopoietic stem cells, induced by stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, to the injured kidney provides an adequate strategy for stem cell-based therapy to counteract renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. It is interesting that cytokine treatment before injury resulted in significant enhancement of function recovery of the kidney. This, however, was not due to increased incorporation of tubular epithelial cells from bone marrow origin. Importantly, cytokine treatment resulted in impaired influx of granulocytes into the injured kidney. Although cytokine treatment improved renal function rapidly after ischemic injury, the results show that the underlying mechanism likely is not based on stem cell transdifferentiation but rather on altered inflammatory kinetics.