Epidemiological evidence is needed to design effective strategies for preventing chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Several types of health check are routinely performed in Japan, including the screening of asymptomatic individuals, but the potential benefits of these procedures remain unknown. We evaluated the predictors of ESRD, using community-based mass screening and a dialysis registry. This approach revealed the significance of proteinuria, hypertension, obesity, anemia, and high fasting plasma glucose levels (which indicate diabetes mellitus; DM), for the risk of developing ESRD. Lifestyle-related factors, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and low levels of exercise, are also associated with these conditions and, in particular, with a high risk of ESRD. Over-nutrition and low levels of exercise can ultimately lead to DM, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity, and are important risk factors worldwide for cardiovascular diseases, CKD, and ESRD. The early detection and treatment of predictors of ESRD, along with appropriate treatment for CKD, may decrease the incidence of ESRD. In addition, the economic burden caused by the costs of dialysis presents a compelling argument for implementing a cost-effective preventive strategy against ESRD.