Transfusion-related acute lung injury is a relatively uncommon transfusion-associated adverse effect occurring during or soon after an allogeneic blood transfusion. Transfusion-related acute lung injury is a complex syndrome that has many manifestations and has only recently been identified to be an important cause of transfusion-associated morbidity and mortality. But despite its increasing recognition, much about the pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention is poorly understood and often controversial. The purpose of this consensus conference was to bring together international experts in an effort to try to standardize a case definition, which could be used to enhance future understanding of transfusion-related acute lung injury including its epidemiology, pathogenesis, management, prevention, and research. These proceedings are being provided with a view to making available to the transfusion medicine community the considerable amount of important information presented at this consensus conference by the invited international panel of experts.