We reported that RNA condensed on protamine is protected from RNase-mediated degradation and can be used for vaccination. Here, we show that such complexes are also danger signals that activate mouse cells through a MyD88-dependent pathway. Moreover, mRNA-protamine complexes stimulate human blood cells. They strongly activate DC and monocytes, leading to TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha secretion. In addition, protamine-RNA complexes directly activate B cells, NK cells and granulocytes. The detailed analysis of the activated cell types, the study of the cytokines released from PBMC cultured with protamine-RNA complexes and recently published results suggest that TLR-7 and TLR-8 may be involved in the recognition of protamine-stabilized RNA. Our data indicate that protamine-stabilized RNA, which may be similar to RNA condensed in the nucleocapsids of RNA viruses, is a strong danger signal. Thus, similarly to plasmid DNA, protamine-RNA combines antigen production and non-specific immunostimulation. The studies presented here explain the capacity of protamine-RNA to act as a vaccine, and pave the way towards the development of safe and efficient mRNA-based immunotherapies.