This paper presents the eleventh update of the human obesity gene map, which incorporates published results up to the end of October 2004. Evidence from single-gene mutation obesity cases, Mendelian disorders exhibiting obesity as a clinical feature, transgenic and knockout murine models relevant to obesity, quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from animal cross-breeding experiments, association studies with candidate genes, and linkages from genome scans is reviewed. As of October 2004, 173 human obesity cases due to single-gene mutations in 10 different genes have been reported, and 49 loci related to Mendelian syndromes relevant to human obesity have been mapped to a genomic region, and causal genes or strong candidates have been identified for most of these syndromes. There are 166 genes which, when mutated or expressed as transgenes in the mouse, result in phenotypes that affect body weight and adiposity. The number of QTLs reported from animal models currently reaches 221. The number of human obesity QTLs derived from genome scans continues to grow, and we have now 204 QTLs for obesity-related phenotypes from 50 genome-wide scans. A total of 38 genomic regions harbor QTLs replicated among two to four studies. The number of studies reporting associations between DNA sequence variation in specific genes and obesity phenotypes has also increased considerably with 358 findings of positive associations with 113 candidate genes. Among them, 18 genes are supported by at least five positive studies. The obesity gene map shows putative loci on all chromosomes except Y. Overall, >600 genes, markers, and chromosomal regions have been associated or linked with human obesity phenotypes. The electronic version of the map with links to useful publications and genomic and other relevant sites can be found at http://obesitygene.pbrc.edu.