Adding casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate to sports drinks to eliminate in vitro erosion

Pediatr Dent. 2005 Jan-Feb;27(1):61-7.


Purpose: Enamel erosion can occur with frequent consumption of sports drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine a minimal concentration of casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) which when added to a sports drink would eliminate such erosion in vitro.

Methods: Human enamel specimens were immersed in: (1) the sports drink Powerade; (2) Poweradeplus 4 concentrations of CPP-ACP (0.063%, 0.09%, 0.125%, 0.25%); or (3) double deionized water. Windows of test and control enamel were profiled, and the enamel surface characteristics were examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Results: The pH of test solutions increased and the titratable acidity decreased with increasing CPP-ACP concentrations. Erosive step lesions occurred in specimens immersed in Powerade (mean depth=38.70kA +/- 5.60), which were eliminated by the addition of CPP-ACP to Powerade at all test concentrations except 0.063% CPP-ACP. Microscopic surface irregularities on test enamel were observed, apparent as adherent granules or globules. These may represent redeposited mineral phases following mobilization of calcium and phosphate from CPP-ACP. Tasters in a taste panel could not distinguish Powerade from Powerade plus 0.125% CPP-ACP.

Conclusions: Adding casein phosphopeptide-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate to the sports drink Powerade significantly reduced the beverage's erosivity without affecting the product's taste.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Beverages* / adverse effects
  • Caseins / therapeutic use*
  • Dental Enamel / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Sports
  • Surface Properties / drug effects
  • Tooth Erosion / etiology
  • Tooth Erosion / prevention & control*


  • Caseins
  • casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate nanocomplex