Background: In the present longitudinal study, we attempted to identify the determinants of cardiorenal damage progression in normotensive subjects (<140/90 mm Hg) and patients with never-treated essential hypertension.
Methods: Renal hemodynamics and function and cardiac morphology were evaluated by isotopic techniques and echocardiography at baseline and after a median follow-up period of 5.2 years (range 3 to 13) in 30 normotensive and 33 hypertensive subjects.
Results: The results are mean +/- SD. Among normotensive subjects at baseline, 50% became hypertensive during follow-up. In the whole population, multivariate analysis showed that age was the main determinant of the progression of systolic blood pressure. The yearly change in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was exaggerated in hypertensive when compared to normotensive subjects at baseline (-1.22 +/- 2.71 vs. 0.12 +/- 2.08 mL/min/year, respectively) (P= 0.033). In the whole population, only baseline systolic blood pressure remained correlated to the change in GFR, independently of GFR at baseline (model r(2)= 0.44) (P < 0.0001). The observed increase in albuminuria was correlated with change in blood pressure only in hypertensive subjects at baseline. Left ventricular mass (LVM) progression was significant only in men and its determinants were basal plasma aldosterone, serum uric acid, and triglyceride and change in systolic blood pressure (r(2)= 0.71) (P < 0.0001).
Conclusion: In a population of untreated subjects, baseline blood pressure as well as progression of blood pressure during follow-up are the main determinants of the decline in GFR, progression of albuminuria, and LVM.