Background: Patients undergoing myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have a high incidence of acute renal failure (ARF). However, it is unclear if ARF is independently associated with mortality after this procedure.
Methods: We performed meta-analysis of published reports on ARF after myeloablative allogeneic HCT. Four databases (MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science) and hand searching of conference proceedings were used to identify the studies. ARF was defined as the doubling of serum creatinine occurring within the first 100 days after HCT. The absolute and the relative risks for death after ARF were calculated for every study. The combined relative risk was calculated using the random effects model. Also, multivariate analysis of patient level data was performed on patients from The University of Colorado to establish independent association between ARF and mortality.
Results: One thousand two hundred and eleven patients were included in the meta-analysis from the 6 published reports in the literature. The overall incidence of ARF varied from 42% to 84% in these studies. On combining the studies by random-effects model, the relative risk of death after ARF was 2.22 (95%CI 1.38-3.5, P < 0.001). The analysis of patient level data from the University of Colorado demonstrated increasing mortality with worsening grades of ARF. After controlling for various demographic and clinical variables with logistic regression, patients who required dialysis had a 6.8-fold higher association with mortality.
Conclusion: ARF appears to independently influence mortality after myeloablative allogeneic HCT. Future studies should be aimed at interventions that can reduce the incidence and severity of ARF with this procedure.