Amylose content (AC), gel consistency (GC) and gelatinazation temperature (GT) are three important traits that influence the cooking and eating quality of rice. The objective of this study was to characterize the genetic components, including main-effect quantitative trait loci (QTLs), epistatic QTLs and QTL-by-environment interactions (QEs), that are involved in the control of these three traits. A population of doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from a cross between two indica varieties Zhenshan 97 and H94 was used, and data were collected from a field experiment conducted in two different environments. A genetic linkage map consisting of 218 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci was constructed, and QTL analysis performed using QTLMAPPER 1.6: resolved the genetic components into main-effect QTLs, epistatic QTLs and QEs. The analysis detected a total of 12 main-effect QTLs for the three traits, with a QTL corresponding to the Wx locus showing a major effect on AC and GC, and a QTL corresponding to the Alk locus having a major effect on GT. Ten digenic interactions involving 19 loci were detected for the three traits, and six main-effect QTLs and two pairs of epistatic QTLs were involved in QEs. While the main-effect QTLs, especially the ones corresponding to known major loci, apparently played predominant roles in the genetic basis of the traits, under certain conditions epistatic effects and QEs also played important roles in controlling the traits. The implications of the findings for rice quality improvement are discussed.