Home-made carbonated water and the consumption of water and other beverages in children and adolescents: results of the DONALD study

Acta Paediatr. 2004 Dec;93(12):1583-7. doi: 10.1080/08035250410033925.


Aim: To determine differences in intake of water, drinking water and beverages between consumers (C) and non-consumers (NC) of carbonated water prepared at home.

Methods: Matched pairs design; 3-d-weighed diet records; participants of the DONALD Study (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study) aged 2-18 y (n = 550, mean: 8.2 y).

Results: The most important beverage was either carbonated (C: females 265, males 299 g/d) or bottled water (NC: males 267, females 282 g/d) followed by juice (120-174 g/d), soft drinks (134-167 g/d) and milk (84-149 g/d). Water intake from beverages was higher in males (NC: 902 and C: 906 g/d) than in females (NC: 789 and C: 771 g/d). However, total water intake per energy was higher in females (NC: 0.88 and C: 0.91 g/kcal) than in males (NC: 0.80 and C: 0.83 g/kcal). C had a significantly higher mean drinking water intake (tap + bottled + carbonated water) in percentage of total water intake (%TW) than NC, and lower mean intakes of milk, bottled water and tap water, respectively. There was a significantly lower mean fat intake in C (females: 32 and males: 33% of energy) versus NC (females: 34 and males: 36% of energy). Irrespective of carbonated water consumption, females had better drinking habits than males, with significantly higher mean intakes of water from food (%TW), water from beverages + food (%TW), and total water per energy.

Conclusions: Drinking habits and total water intakes of consumers are quite similar to those of non-consumers of carbonated water. Females in general show more favourable drinking habits than males.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Carbonated Beverages*
  • Child
  • Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cultural Characteristics
  • Diet
  • Drinking Behavior*
  • Energy Intake
  • Environment*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Germany
  • Health Surveys*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Water / administration & dosage*


  • Water