Interactions of NF-kappaB with chromatin: the art of being at the right place at the right time

Nat Immunol. 2005 May;6(5):439-45. doi: 10.1038/ni1196.


Transcription factors of the NF-kappaB family are essential regulators of the inflammatory and immune responses. The main 'switch' in NF-kappaB activation is cytoplasmic and leads to the release of NF-kappaB proteins from IkappaB molecules, specific inhibitors that prevent their nuclear accumulation. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that in addition to this required activation step, both recruitment of NF-kappaB to target genes and NF-kappaB-induced transcriptional events after recruitment are actively controlled. Regulated recruitment of NF-kappaB to chromatin generates kinetic complexity in NF-kappaB-dependent gene induction and 'wires' NF-kappaB-regulated gene activity to simultaneously activated pathways and transcription factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Binding Sites
  • Chromatin / chemistry
  • Chromatin / genetics
  • Chromatin / metabolism*
  • DNA / genetics
  • DNA / metabolism
  • Dimerization
  • Humans
  • NF-kappa B / chemistry
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism*
  • Nucleosomes / chemistry
  • Nucleosomes / genetics
  • Nucleosomes / metabolism


  • Chromatin
  • NF-kappa B
  • Nucleosomes
  • DNA