Objective: The development of acute renal failure following cardiac surgery is a rare but devastating complication with high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to assess the incidence of acute renal failure necessitating continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in patients who required cardiopulmonary bypass, to determine the factors associated with mortality and to evaluate long-term outcome.
Methods: Patients who underwent cardiac surgery between October 1997 and 2003 and treated with CRRT were included (n=98). Six patients were then excluded (already in established renal failure pre-operatively) and one patient lost to follow-up. A retrospective analysis was carried out.
Results: Overall CRRT was used in 2.9% (92/3172). The mean (SD) age of patients was 68 (10) years. Their mean pre-operative creatinine level and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass were 154 (87)micromol/l and 160 (84)min, respectively. Mean duration from surgery to establishment of CRRT was 50 (42)h. Mean creatinine level prior to hospital discharge was 168 (93)micromol/l. Thirty-day mortality was 42%. Significant risk factors for death were complex procedures (odds ratio=9.9), gastro-intestinal complications (OR=7.2), cross-clamp time over 88min (OR=5.9), re-exploration (OR=4.0) and patients age over 75 years (OR=3.3). Actuarial 1 and 5-year survivals (95% CI) were 53 (43, 63) % and 52 (42, 62) %, respectively. Only 2 (2.2%) patients required long term renal support.
Conclusions: Acute renal failure necessitating the use of CRRT is a rare but serious complication post cardiopulmonary bypass. In the long-term, surviving patients are not likely to require further renal support.