Effect of long-term cigarette smoke exposure on locomotor activity and brain monoamine levels in rats

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1992 Mar;41(3):655-8. doi: 10.1016/0091-3057(92)90388-v.


Rats were chronically exposed to cigarette smoke for 20 min twice daily using a smoking machine. On days 1, 4, and 14, locomotor activity and rearing were measured for 15 min in an open-field apparatus. On day 1, exposure to cigarette smoke increased locomotor activity and rearing in the latter half of the observation period. This effect became more pronounced on days 4 and 14. Chronic cigarette smoke exposures for 21 days significantly decreased the norepinephrine levels in the hypothalamus, thalamus, and pons-medulla, but not the levels of dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, or their metabolites. These results suggest that repeated cigarette smoke exposure increasingly stimulates locomotor activity and rearing and affects norepinephrine metabolism, especially in the brainstem.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biogenic Monoamines / metabolism*
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Motor Activity*
  • Norepinephrine / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred Strains
  • Smoking / physiopathology
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Tissue Distribution


  • Biogenic Monoamines
  • Norepinephrine