Some case-control studies have demonstrated that caffeine intake and high CYP1A2 activity increase risks of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) but the multifactorial effect is obscure. To investigate whether susceptible women who have more caffeine intake are at high risk of RPL, a case-control study of 58 cases with two or more RPL and fertile 147 controls was performed. The association between daily caffeine intake together with CYP1A21F (AA versus CA and CC) genotype and RPL was assessed. Without consideration of the genotype, there were no significant differences of the RPL risk in proportion to daily caffeine intake [less than 100 mg (reference); 100-299 mg: odds ratio (OR), 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-2.50; 300 mg or more: OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 0.72-4.58; P for trend, 0.20]. However, the RPL risk significantly increased only among women who had homozygous CYP1A21F alleles with a dosage effect of daily caffeine intake [less than 100 mg (reference); 100-299 mg: OR, 1.94; 95% CI, 0.57-6.66; 300 mg or more: OR, 5.23; 95% CI, 1.05-25.9; P for trend, 0.03]. It was demonstrated for the first time that an increase in caffeine intake deteriorates the fecundity among susceptible women.