Background and objective: This study evaluated patterns of long-term use of male condoms among partners of 966 Cameroonian women who received eight intensive, monthly counseling sessions about condoms and sexually transmitted infection testing and treatment.
Method: An interrupted time-series design was used with study participants reporting condom use and other covariates at enrollment, monthly for 6 months during the randomized, controlled trial, and at approximately 14 months after the trial.
Results: Consistent condom use began decreasing while women were still receiving monthly condom use counseling, with every month in the trial associated with an odds ratio of 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-0.99) of consistent condom use and dropped substantively after the trial with a 0.39 (95% CI, 0.26-0.59) odds ratio in a logistic regression analysis. The incidence of unprotected coital acts as each month passed increased by 3% (95% CI, 1-4%) with no statistically significant change during the condom use follow-up survey as indicated in a zero-inflated Poisson regression model for unprotected coital acts. Condom use in a coital act was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.78-0.92) less likely during the follow-up survey than during the trial.
Conclusion: Only a few women sustained consistent condom use throughout the study period and for more than 1 year after. It is important to continue documenting the impact of condom promotion in a rigorous manner and to identify content and delivery of counseling that will lead to sustained condom use beyond the intervention period.