The relationship between magnitude of proteinuria reduction and risk of end-stage renal disease: results of the African American study of kidney disease and hypertension

Arch Intern Med. 2005 Apr 25;165(8):947-53. doi: 10.1001/archinte.165.8.947.


Background: The magnitude of proteinuria is associated with a graded increase in the risk of progression to end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular events. The objective of this study was to relate baseline and early changes in proteinuria and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to long-term progression of hypertensive nondiabetic kidney disease.

Methods: Post hoc analysis of a randomized 3 x 2 factorial trial. A total of 1094 African Americans with hypertensive renal disease (GFR, 20-65 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)) were followed up for a median of 3.8 years. Participants were randomized to a mean arterial pressure goal of 102 to 107 mm Hg (usual) or 92 mm Hg or less (lower) and to initial treatment with a beta-blocker (metoprolol), an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ramipril), or a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker (amlodipine)

Results: Baseline proteinuria and GFR predicted the rgate of GFR decline. For each 10-mL/min per 1.73 m(2) lower baseline GFR, an associated mean +/- SE 0.38 +/- 0.08-mL/min per 1.73 m(2) per year greater mean GFR decline occurred, and for each 2-fold higher proteinuria level, a mean +/- SE 0.54 +/- 0.05-mL/min per 1.73 m(2) per year faster GFR decline was observed (P < .001 for both). In multivariate analysis, the effect of baseline proteinuria GFR decline persisted. Initial change in proteinuria from baseline to 6 months predicted subsequent progression, with this relationship extending to participants with baseline urinary protein levels less than 300 mg/d.

Conclusions: The change in the level of proteinuria is a predictor of subsequent progression of hypertensive kidney disease at a given GFR. A prospective trial is needed to confirm this observation.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Adult
  • African Americans*
  • Aged
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Blood Pressure / drug effects
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / therapeutic use
  • Dihydropyridines / therapeutic use
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate / drug effects
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate / physiology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Hypertension / ethnology*
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / ethnology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / physiopathology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / prevention & control*
  • Male
  • Metoprolol / therapeutic use
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Proteinuria / complications
  • Proteinuria / ethnology
  • Proteinuria / urine*
  • Ramipril / therapeutic use
  • Risk Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Adrenergic beta-Antagonists
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Dihydropyridines
  • 1,4-dihydropyridine
  • Metoprolol
  • Ramipril