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Review
, 102 Suppl 1 (Suppl 1), 6558-65

Critical Review of Host Specificity and Its Coevolutionary Implications in the Fig/Fig-Wasp Mutualism

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Review

Critical Review of Host Specificity and Its Coevolutionary Implications in the Fig/Fig-Wasp Mutualism

Carlos A Machado et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.

Abstract

Figs (Ficus spp., Moraceae) and their pollinating wasps (Agaonidae, Chalcidoidea) constitute perhaps the most tightly integrated pollination mutualism that is known. Figs are characterized by extraordinarily high global and local species diversity. It has been proposed that the diversification of this mutualism has occurred through strict-sense coadaptation and cospeciation between pairs of fig and wasp species that are associated in highly specific one-to-one relationships. However, existing studies cast doubt on the generality of this proposition. Here, we review our current knowledge of the evolutionary history of the fig/fig-wasp mutualism. We critically examine the idea that codivergence between figs and their pollinators has been dominated by strict-sense cospeciation. We present phylogenetic and population genetic data from neotropical fig and fig wasp species that suggest that a more accurate model for diversification in this mutualism is that of groups of genetically well defined wasp species coevolving with genetically less well defined (frequently hybridizing) groups of figs. Last, we use our results to assess previously proposed hypotheses on models of speciation in this mutualism.

Figures

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.
Tanglegram comparison of the phylogenies of sections of Ficus and their associated genera of pollinating wasps. Both phylogenies correspond to pruned trees from larger phylogenetic studies (32, 35, 37). In the pollinator phylogeny, C stands for Ceratosolen and W stands for Wiebesia, the only genera of pollinating wasps associated with more than one Ficus section. Numbers associated with branches are bootstrap values (>40%) that were taken directly from the studies in which the complete phylogenies were presented originally (32, 35, 37). They are shown to indicate the level of support for each node in the original phylogenetic studies. The two cladograms are significantly incongruent (see text). treemap 1.0 was used to create this image (47) (see text for details).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.
Tanglegram comparisons of molecular phylogenies from neotropical Ficus and their pollinators. Species names for the wasps are omitted for brevity and are shown as codes, with each number corresponding to a different species. All phylogenies are ML trees (see text for details). The individual sequences per species used in these reconstructions correspond to the most common haplotypes found for each species. Fig wasp sequences from fig species with multiple pollinators are from the most common species associated with a given fig host. The pollinator phylogeny compared with the G3pdh phylogeny is a pruned version of the larger COI-COII tree compared with the Tpi phylogeny. Numbers below branches are bootstrap values based on 1,000 replications. The fig and pollinator phylogenies are significantly incongruent (see text).

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