Fifty-seven patients, from whose sputum Haemophilus influenzae (49 cases) or Haemophilus parainfluenzae (8 cases) was isolated during a 7-month period, were studied. In the majority of cases there were well-defined predisposing factors to respiratory tract colonisation or infection with the isolates, in particular bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive airways disease. Colonisation of the airways, bronchopneumonia in patients with underlying lung disease, acute lobar pneumonia, and postoperative chest infections were the commonest clinical diagnoses. Primary acute lobar pneumonia with these organisms alone was uncommon. All of the H. influenzae isolates were nontypeable, and there was a wide range of biotypes of both organisms. Three H. influenzae isolates produced beta-lactamase, and there was, in general, a low incidence of resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents on disc susceptibility testing.