Hemolymph coagulation and phenoloxidase in Drosophila larvae

Dev Comp Immunol. 2005;29(8):669-79. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2004.11.007. Epub 2005 Feb 2.


Hemolymph coagulation is a first response to wounding in insects. Although studies have been performed in large-bodied insects such as the moth Galleria mellonella, less is known about clotting in Drosophila melanogaster, the insect most useful for genetic and molecular analyses of innate immunity. Here we show the similarities between clots in Drosophila and Galleria by light- and electron microscopy. Phenoloxidase changes the Drosophila clot's physical properties through cross-linking and melanization, but it is not necessary for preliminary soft clot formation. Bacteria associate with the clot, but this alone does not necessarily kill them. The stage is now set for rapid advances in our understanding of insect hemolymph coagulation, its roles in immune defense and wound healing, and for a more comprehensive grasp of the insect immune system in general.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacteria / immunology
  • Blood Coagulation
  • Drosophila melanogaster / enzymology*
  • Drosophila melanogaster / growth & development
  • Drosophila melanogaster / immunology*
  • Drosophila melanogaster / microbiology
  • Hemolymph / drug effects
  • Hemolymph / immunology
  • Hemolymph / microbiology
  • Hemolymph / physiology*
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology
  • Larva / enzymology*
  • Larva / immunology*
  • Larva / microbiology
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase / metabolism*
  • Moths / immunology
  • Moths / physiology
  • Neutrophils / physiology


  • Monophenol Monooxygenase