Background: Some neonates with coarctation of the aorta (COA) present with cardiogenic shock and secondary end-organ injury. The management of this subgroup imposes unique challenges. We review our perioperative strategy and outcomes for neonates with COA who presented with cardiogenic shock.
Methods: Neonates (younger than 30 days) with isolated COA or COA with aortic arch hypoplasia were identified. Retrospective review was performed to identify and characterize patients who presented with cardiogenic shock, defined as impaired left ventricular (LV) or right ventricular (RV) systolic function, or both, respiratory failure requiring tracheal intubation, and metabolic acidosis.
Results: Thirteen neonates presented in cardiogenic shock and underwent surgical repair. No patients required catheter or surgical reintervention for recoarctation. There were no deaths at a mean follow-up of 54 months. Group I neonates (isolated COA, n = 7) underwent end-to-end anastomosis through left thoracotomy. The mean age and pH at presentation were 9 (+/-1.1) days and 7.07 (+/-0.21), respectively. The mean preoperative and postoperative LV myocardial performance indices (MPI) were 0.81 (+/-0.22) and 0.37 (+/-0.16), respectively (p = 0.002). Group II neonates (COA with arch hypoplasia +/- ventricular septal defect, n = 6) underwent aortic arch advancement and ventricular septal defect closure through median sternotomy. The mean time from diagnosis to surgery in group II was 5.5 (+/-1.9) days versus 2.4 (+/-1.5) days in group 1 (p = 0.01). The mean age and pH at presentation were 11.8 (+/-9.3) days and 7.02 (+/-0.21), respectively. The mean preoperative and postoperative LV MPI were 0.46 (+/-0.13) and 0.35 (+/-0.11), respectively (p = 0.02). The total hospital length of stay in group II patients was 18 (+/-6.23) days versus 11.3 (+/-5. 7) days in group I (p = 0.04).
Conclusions: Timely intervention with a strategy individualized to the patient anatomy can be performed with excellent outcomes in neonates with COA and cardiogenic shock. Neonates with isolated COA had worse preoperative LV MPI, which reflects more significant global left ventricular systolic dysfunction in this subgroup. The elapsed time from diagnosis to surgery was decreased in neonates with isolated COA.