Recently, the genetic variability at adiponectin locus (APM1) was associated with cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. We sought to examine the associations of five variants of APM1 gene (C-11365G, A-4034C, A-3964G, T45G, and G276T) with the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in a larger cohort of diabetic patients. Of 879 diabetic men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 239 participants developed coronary heart disease or stroke during 14 years of follow-up and 640 CVD-negative subjects were used as control subjects. The risk of CVD was significantly lower in TT homozygotes at locus +276 than in other genotypes under a recessive inheritance model after adjusting for age, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, aspirin use, HbA1c, and history of hypertension or hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio 0.38 [95% CI 0.18-0.79]; P = 0.009). In the CVD-negative control subjects, the allele 276T was associated with significantly higher plasma adiponectin levels in a dose-dependent pattern (GG 14.8, GT 16.2, and TT 18.8 microg/ml) after adjusting for age, BMI, and other variables (P for trend = 0.0019). In conclusion, our study showed significant associations between APM1 G276T and decreased CVD risk and increased plasma adiponectin levels in diabetic men.