The nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) comprises a family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of a wide variety of biological responses. NF-kB plays a well-known function in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation, but growing evidences support a major role in oncogenesis. NF-kB regulates the expression of genes involved in many processes that play a key role in the development and progression of cancer such as proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Aberrant or constitutive NF-kB activation has been detected in many human malignancies. In recent years, numerous studies have focused on elucidating the functional consequences of NF-kB activation as well as its signaling mechanisms. NF-kB has turned out to be an interesting therapeutic target for treatment of cancer.