Auxin regulates plant growth and development by altering the expression of diverse genes. Among these, the genes of Aux/IAA, SAUR, and GH3 classes have been extensively studied in dicots, but little information is available on monocots. We have identified 12 members of GH3 gene family in rice using sequences of full-length cDNA clones available from KOME and analysis of the whole genome sequence of rice. The genomic organization as well as chromosomal location of all the OsGH3 genes is reported. The rice GH3 proteins can be classified in two groups (groups I and II) on the basis of their phylogenetic relationship with Arabidopsis GH3 proteins. Based upon the sequences available in the database, not a single group III GH3 protein could be identified in rice. An extensive survey of EST sequences of other monocots led to the conclusion that although GH3 gene family is highly conserved in both dicots and monocots but the group III is conspicuous by its absence in monocots. The in silico analysis has been complemented with experimental data to quantify transcript levels of all GH3 gene family members. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, the organ-specific expression of individual OsGH3 genes in light- and dark-grown seedlings/plants has been examined. The transcript abundance of nearly all OsGH3 genes is enhanced on auxin treatment, with the effect more pronounced on OsGH3-1, -2, and -4. The functional validation of these genes in transgenics or analysis of gene-specific insertional mutants will help in elucidating their precise role in auxin signal transduction.