Clinicopathological features and microsatellite instability (MSI) in colorectal cancers from African Americans

Int J Cancer. 2005 Oct 10;116(6):914-9. doi: 10.1002/ijc.21062.


African Americans (AAs) have a 1.5 times higher risk of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) than Caucasians. Gene silencing through CpG island hypermethylation has been associated with the genesis or progression of microsatellite instability (MSI) largely due to 1 target for hypermethylation being the DNA mismatch repair gene hMLH1; there is anecdotal evidence of an increased incidence of MSI among AAs. P16 and hMLH1 can be inactivated by hypermethylation of their respective promoter regions, abrogating the ability to regulate cell proliferation and repair processes. We studied such methylation, as well as hMHS2 expression in colorectal cancers from AA patients to determine if MSI is associated with epigenetic silencing. Experiments were conducted on matched normal and colon cancer tissues from AA patients (n = 51). A total of 5 microsatellite markers (D2S123, D5S346, D17S250, BAT25 and BAT26) were used to evaluate MSI status. P16 and hMLH1 promoter methylation status was determined following bisulfite modification of DNA and using methylation specific PCR, while immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to examine expression of hMLH1 and hMSH2. A total of 22 (43%) cancers demonstrated microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H), while 27 were microsatellite stable (MSS) and 2 were microsatellite instability-low (MSH-L). Most of the MSI-H tumors were proximal, well differentiated and highly mucinous. Most patients in the MSI-H group were females (68%). The p16 promoter was methylated in 19 of 47 (40%) tumors. A total of 7 of these CRCs demonstrated MSI-H (33%). The hMLH1 promoter was methylated in 29 of 34 (85%) tumors, of which 13 CRCs demonstrated MSI-H (87%). hMLH1 and hMSH2 staining was observed in 66% and 38% of MSI-H tumors, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of MSI-H colorectal tumor was 2-3-fold higher, while the defect in the percentage expression of mismatch repair (MMR) genes (hMLH1 and hMSH2) was similar in AA patients compared to the U.S. Caucasian population. Similar numbers of AA MSS tumors with p16 and hMLH1 methylation likely indicate hemimethylation of genes that might reflect environmental or genetic influences that might be more common in the AA population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • African Americans / genetics*
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Chromosomal Instability / genetics*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics
  • DNA Methylation
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Humans
  • Microsatellite Repeats / genetics*
  • MutL Protein Homolog 1
  • MutS Homolog 2 Protein
  • Neoplasm Proteins / genetics
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • MLH1 protein, human
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • MSH2 protein, human
  • MutL Protein Homolog 1
  • MutS Homolog 2 Protein