Background: Periodontitis is often associated with diabetes and might be considered one of the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus, both in Type 1 (T1DM) and Type 2 (T2DM). This case-control study was designed to evaluate the possible association between non-insulin-dependent diabetes (T2DM) and clinical and microbiological periodontal disease among adult Sardinians.
Methods: A total of 212 individuals participated in this study: 71 T2DM patients aged 61.0 +/- 11.0 years and 141 non-diabetic controls in good general health aged 59.1 +/- 9.2 years. All subjects were given a clinical periodontal examination for probing depth, attachment level, presence of calculus, bleeding on probing, and assessment of plaque. Subgingival plaque samples were obtained, and P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and T. forsythensis were identified using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.
Results: T2DM patients showed a significantly lower number of teeth present (P = 0.002); a significant increase in number of probing depths >4 mm, and percent of pocket depths >4 mm (P = 0.04 and P = 0.05, respectively); periodontitis (P = 0.046); bleeding on probing (P = 0.02); and plaque index (P = 0.01). A significant association with diabetes was detected for plaque (X2= 4.46; P <0.05) and bleeding on probing (X2= 3.60; P <0.05). Concerning bacteria prevalence, a positive association was detected for P. gingivalis (X2= 2.80; P <0.05) and T. forsythensis (X2= 3.87; P <0.05). Presence of plaque was positively associated with case status (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2, 3.6) and with prevalence of P. gingivalis and T. forsythensis (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.2; and 1.2, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.8, respectively).
Conclusion: Patients with T2DM undoubtedly have a susceptibility for more severe periodontal disease.