trans-Resveratrol (resveratrol) has been shown in several studies to significantly modulate biomarkers of bone metabolism. But, there is no direct evidence supporting its inhibitory effect towards bone loss. In the present study, effects of resveratrol on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone calcium content (BCC) were examined in the ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. Female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SHAM group (sham-operated), OVX group (OVX control), OVX + ALD group (OVX and treated with 1.0 mg/kg of body weight of alendronate sodium), and OVX + RES group (OVX and treated with 0.7 mg/kg of body weight of resveratrol). Tested materials were given by gavage for 12 weeks after ovariectomy. Results showed that rats in the OVX, OVX + ALD, and OVX + RES groups had significantly higher body weights and feed efficiency than those in the SHAM group (P < .01). The OVX group had significantly lower femoral epiphysis BMD than the SHAM group, and epiphysis BMD in the OVX + ALD and OVX + RES groups was significantly greater than that in the OVX group (P < .05). However, the femoral midpoint BMD was not significantly different among the four groups. Additionally, animals in the OVX group had significantly lower BCC compared with the SHAM group, while the BCC of the OVX + ALD and OVX + RES groups was significantly higher than that of the OVX group (P < .05). These results indicated that resveratrol could increase epiphysis BMD and inhibit the decrease of femur BCC in OVX rats, suggesting that it could play a role in protecting against bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency.