Optimal insulin pump dosing and postprandial glycemia following a pizza meal using the continuous glucose monitoring system

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2005 Apr;7(2):233-40. doi: 10.1089/dia.2005.7.233.


Background: We attempted to identify an optimal insulin pump meal bolus by comparing postprandial sensor glucose values following three methods of insulin pump meal bolusing for a consistent pizza meal.

Research design and methods: Twenty-four patients with type 1 diabetes participated in a study to compare postprandial glucose values following three meal bolus regimens for a consistent evening pizza meal. Each participant utilized the following insulin lispro regimens on consecutive evenings, and glucose values were tracked by the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS, Medtronic MiniMed, Northridge, CA): (a) single-wave bolus (100% of insulin given immediately); (b) 4-h dual-wave bolus (50% of insulin given immediately and 50% given over a 4-h period); and (c) 8-h dual-wave bolus (50% of insulin given immediately and 50% given over a 8-h period). Total insulin bolus amount was kept constant for each pizza meal.

Results: Divergence in blood glucose among the regimens was greatest at 8-12 h. The 8-h dual-wave bolus provided the best glycemic control and lowest mean glucose values (singlewave bolus, 133 mg/dL; 4-h dual-wave bolus, 145 mg/dL; 8-h dual-wave bolus, 104 mg/dL), leading to a difference in mean glucose of 29 mg/dL for the single-wave bolus versus the 8-h dual-wave bolus and 42 mg/dL for the 4-h dual-wave bolus versus the 8-h dual-wave bolus. The lower mean glucose in the 8-h dual-wave bolus was not associated with any increased incidence of hypoglycemia.

Conclusions: Use of a dual-wave bolus extended over an 8-h period following a pizza meal provided significantly less postprandial hyperglycemia in the late postprandial period (8-12 h) with no increased risk of hypoglycemia.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Eating / physiology*
  • Female
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / therapeutic use*
  • Insulin Infusion Systems*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Postprandial Period


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin