Calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP)-like immunoreactivity was localized in nerve fibres, neuronal somata and in mucosal endocrine cells of the human small intestine. Immunoreactive enteric neurons were more numerous in the submucous plexuses than in the myenteric plexus. Morphologically, they predominantly had the appearance of type II neurons. The majority of the CGRP-like immunoreactive nerve fibres ran within the ganglionic nerve plexuses. Only a small proportion could be observed in the lamina propria, the lamina muscularis mucosae, or the circular and longitudinal outer smooth muscle layer. These findings suggest that within the wall of the human small intestine neuronal CGRP of either extrinsic or intrinsic origin exerts its effect chiefly on other enteric neurons, and might be indirectly involved in the regulatory functions of the human small intestine.