Evaluation of human monoclonal antibody 80R for immunoprophylaxis of severe acute respiratory syndrome by an animal study, epitope mapping, and analysis of spike variants

J Virol. 2005 May;79(10):5900-6. doi: 10.1128/JVI.79.10.5900-5906.2005.

Abstract

In this report, the antiviral activity of 80R immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), a human monoclonal antibody against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike (S) protein that acts as a viral entry inhibitor in vitro, was investigated in vivo in a mouse model. When 80R IgG1 was given prophylactically to mice at doses therapeutically achievable in humans, viral replication was reduced by more than 4 orders of magnitude to below assay limits. The essential core region of S protein required for 80R binding was identified as a conformationally sensitive fragment (residues 324 to 503) that overlaps the receptor ACE2-binding domain. Amino acids critical for 80R binding were identified. In addition, the effects of various 80R-binding domain amino acid substitutions which occur in SARS-like-CoV from civet cats, and which evolved during the 2002/2003 outbreak and in a 2003/2004 Guangdong index patient, were analyzed. The results demonstrated that the vast majority of SARS-CoVs are sensitive to 80R. We propose that by establishing the susceptibility and resistance profiles of newly emerging SARS-CoVs through early S1 genotyping of the core 180-amino-acid neutralizing epitope of 80R, an effective immunoprophylaxis strategy with 80R should be possible in an outbreak setting. Our study also cautions that for any prophylaxis strategy based on neutralizing antibody responses, whether by passive or active immunization, a genotyping monitor will be necessary for effective use.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Substitution
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage*
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology*
  • Antibodies, Viral / administration & dosage*
  • Antibodies, Viral / immunology*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Epitope Mapping
  • Escherichia coli / metabolism
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Immunization, Passive
  • Immunoglobulin G / administration & dosage
  • Immunoglobulin G / immunology
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / chemistry
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / immunology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Receptors, Virus / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Receptors, Virus / metabolism
  • SARS Virus / genetics
  • SARS Virus / immunology*
  • SARS Virus / isolation & purification
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome / prevention & control*
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome / virology
  • Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / chemistry
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / genetics
  • Viral Envelope Proteins / immunology*
  • Viral Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Viral Vaccines / immunology*

Substances

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Receptors, Virus
  • Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
  • Viral Envelope Proteins
  • Viral Vaccines
  • spike glycoprotein, SARS-CoV
  • spike protein, mouse hepatitis virus