To investigate the possible implication of antibodies against dorsal root ganglion neuron in the pathogenesis of sensory neuropathy with Sjögren's syndrome, we examined the pathogenic role of antiganglion neuron antibodies by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and immunoreactive assay. Sjögren's syndrome patients without neuropathy, patients with vasculitic neuropathy and normal volunteers were evaluated as controls. Antiganglion neuron antibodies recognizing certain proteins of several different molecular weights were detected only in patients of sensory neuropathy with Sjögren's syndrome. Those antibodies labeled specific-sized neurons in the fixed ganglion and isolated ganglion neurons under the culture condition, each of which corresponded well to clinical manifestations. These results suggest that antiganglion neuron antibodies may contribute to the pathogenesis of sensory neuropathy with Sjögren's syndrome.