The Arabidopsis Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporters cation exchanger (CAX) 1 and 2 utilise an electrochemical gradient to transport Ca(2+) into the vacuole to help mediate Ca(2+) homeostasis. Previous whole plant studies indicate that activity of Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporters is regulated by pH. However, the pH regulation of individual Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporters has not been examined. To determine whether CAX1 and CAX2 activity is affected by pH, Ca(2+)/H(+) antiport activity was measured in vacuolar membrane vesicles isolated from yeast heterologously expressing either transporter. Ca(2+) transport by CAX1 and CAX2 was regulated by cytosolic pH and each transporter had a distinct cytosolic pH profile. Screening of CAX1/CAX2 chimeras identified an amino acid domain within CAX2 that altered the pH-dependent Ca(2+) transport profile so that it was almost identical to the pH profile of CAX1. Results from mutagenesis of a specific His residue within this domain suggests a role for this residue in pH regulation.