Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with adverse outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), but it is unclear which of these revascularization strategies is associated with lower risk for morbidity and mortality in this population. In the Arterial Revascularization Therapies Study (ARTS), we compared long-term clinical outcomes after CABG or PCI with multivessel stenting in patients with CKD.
Methods: The ARTS randomly assigned 1205 participants with and without CKD to CABG or PCI with multivessel stenting. We defined CKD as creatinine clearance < or =60 mL/min, estimated by the Cockroft-Gault equation. The primary outcome was the composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke; and, a secondary outcome was repeat revascularization. Participants were followed for a mean of 3 years after their intervention. We evaluated whether randomization to CABG or PCI was associated with different outcomes among participants with CKD.
Results: Two hundred ninety participants (25%) had CKD at entry into ARTS. One hundred fifty-one received PCI, and 139 received CABG. No difference was observed in the primary endpoint with CABG or PCI among CKD participants (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR] CABG vs PCI = 0.93; 95% CI 0.54-1.60; P = .97). However, CABG was associated with a reduced risk for repeat revascularization (HR = 0.28; 95% CI 0.14-0.54; P < .01). Compared with participants with normal renal function, CKD was associated with a nearly 2-fold risk for the primary outcome (unadjusted HR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.7; P < .01). After multivariate adjustment, this association remained significant (HR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1-2.4).
Conclusions: In patients with multivessel CAD and CKD, treatment with CABG or PCI with multivessel stenting led to similar outcomes of death, MI, or stroke, but CABG was associated with decreased repeat revascularizations. When compared with ARTS participants with normal renal function, those with CKD had substantially elevated risk of adverse clinical outcomes after coronary revascularization.