Inflammation, stress, and diabetes

J Clin Invest. 2005 May;115(5):1111-9. doi: 10.1172/JCI25102.


Over the last decade, an abundance of evidence has emerged demonstrating a close link between metabolism and immunity. It is now clear that obesity is associated with a state of chronic low-level inflammation. In this article, we discuss the molecular and cellular underpinnings of obesity-induced inflammation and the signaling pathways at the intersection of metabolism and inflammation that contribute to diabetes. We also consider mechanisms through which the inflammatory response may be initiated and discuss the reasons for the inflammatory response in obesity. We put forth for consideration some hypotheses regarding important unanswered questions in the field and suggest a model for the integration of inflammatory and metabolic pathways in metabolic disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adipocytes / immunology
  • Adipocytes / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Diabetes Mellitus / immunology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Insulin Resistance / immunology
  • Insulin Resistance / physiology
  • Macrophages / immunology
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Obesity / immunology
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Stress, Physiological / immunology*
  • Stress, Physiological / metabolism