Macrophage-derived cytokine and nitric oxide profiles in type I and type II diabetes mellitus: effect of thymoquinone

Acta Diabetol. 2005 Mar;42(1):23-30. doi: 10.1007/s00592-005-0170-6.


Comparing macrophage-derived cytokine and nitric oxide (NO) profiles in type I and type II diabetes mellitus (DM); and determining whether thymoquinone (TQ) has any modulatory effect were the main objectives of the present study. Peritoneal macrophages have been collected from Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) as a model for type II DM and its control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats, as well as from streptozotocin (STZ)-injected LETO ones as a model for type I DM. The cells were cultured and incubated with or without TQ (10 microM) in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 microg/ml). The same parameters have been also assessed in sera of the used animals with or without TQ treatment (3 mg/kg) under both LPS-stimulated (10 mg/kg) and unstimulated conditions. Nitrite, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were significantly higher in macrophage supernatants and sera of the acutely affected STZ-LETO rats either with or without LPS stimulation compared to corresponding controls. On the other hand, chronically diabetic OLETF rats' macrophage supernatants showed significant decreases of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha levels upon LPS stimulation or even without stimulation (IL-1beta); and insignificant increase in nitrite concentration, which turned significant upon LPS stimulation. Sera of these animals, however, showed significant increase in TNF-alpha level. TQ normalised the elevated nitrite and cytokine profiles both in vitro and in vivo, yet had no significant effect on the already decreased parameters in chronically affected OLETF rats. These data suggest that there is a tendency for macrophage inflammatory products to increase in acute type I and to decrease in chronic type II DM; and that TQ has the potential to normalise the elevated levels of these macrophage-derived inflammatory mediators.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Benzoquinones / pharmacology*
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / immunology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism
  • Immunologic Factors / pharmacology*
  • Interleukin-1 / blood
  • Interleukin-1 / metabolism
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / drug effects
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / immunology*
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / metabolism
  • Male
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism*
  • Nitrites / blood
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred OLETF
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism


  • Benzoquinones
  • Blood Glucose
  • Cytokines
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Interleukin-1
  • Nitrites
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Nitric Oxide
  • thymoquinone